Esther Carmel-Hakim is a member of Kibbutz Ramat Hashofet. She has a B. Ed. in Teaching English as a Second Language from Concordia University in Montreal, Canada (1979), and an M.A. and Ph.D (2003) in Land of Israel Studies from the University of Haifa. Carmel-Hakim taught in her kibbutz’s Ulpan Hebrew program for new immigrants (1980-82). While teaching English at Megiddo Regional High School she inaugurated a program for improving the integration of teen girls in academic studies. For the past 4 years she has taught in the Land of Israel Department at the University of Haifa. Carmel-Hakim was a visiting lecturer and researcher at the Near Eastern and Judaic Studies at Brandeis University (2004-5). Her teaching and research interests include: Women's Zionist Organizations; Women in Israel; Women on the Kibbutz.